It was a miracle. At its peak, it is said to have numbered 5,000 men, the largest such body in Illinois. Nauvoo Legion Activities Incite Surrounding Militias The parades and other activities of the legion — which included mock battles — attracted visitors from near and far. Whether on parade or the battlefield, soldiers of Nauvoo gave new meaning to a well-equipped and capable fighting militia. Although its size, 5’x4′ was pretentious if not ostentatious, it was not size that caused the applauding crowd of eight thousand to pause. After the revocation of the Nauvoo Charter, the members of the Nauvoo Legion continued to operate under the command of Brigham Young, leader of the movement's largest faction, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The History of the Church records, “The Legion paraded at the Masonic Hall field one day … then moved for drillings to ‘the ground near Spencer’s northeast of the Temple”‘ the next.16. In 1870 the Utah Territorial governor, J. Wilson Shaffer forced the Legion inactive unless he ordered otherwise. And also legion members participated in the rescue of Joseph from the state Militia who had unlawfully arrested him after luring him to what was supposed to be a peaceful political debate and were going to hang him (citation needed). The Legion flag of the 1850s had thirteen stars and stripes, symbolic of the United States flag. Depleted of its official status, remnants assumed roles such as guardians of the handcart and wagon companies heading west after being reorganized by Hosea Stout on September 22, 1846, as they amassed on the other side of the Mississippi River in the territory of Iowa where the citizens of Nauvoo were safe from attack by mobs and Illinois and Missouri militia, and waited for winter to end so they could migrate (citation needed). The alleged Nauvoo Legion Flag. Few Legionnaires at this, their last parade, walked with heads held high and even fewer recalled the boastful days when Hosea Stout’s poem of greatness applied: They’ll find that Illinois firm in her place will stand. Posted by Julie L. Mellby on July 14, 2012 | 1 Comment. Legionnaires made a credible and soldier-like appearance with but on notable flaw. Nauvoo was officially abandoned and the last remaining citizens had vacated Nauvoo by September 17, 1846, under gunfire and cannon artillery barrage as Illinois and Missouri militia and mobs raided and burned Nauvoo to the ground (citation needed). An area memorialized by the somber Far West cemetery and LDS Temple. Sister McCleod walked by me. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. He recalled crimes perpetrated against Latter-day Saints in Missouri and assured all present that in enduring “those scenes of tribulation, his confidence, his courage and his joy had been increasing instead of diminishing.”  He cautioned exuberant Legionnaires “not to usurp authority, but to obey as they are commanded and directed; to honor, not the world, but Him that is alive and regins.”5, Then, on cue, architects laid a cornerstone of the temple in its proper place. Smith family tradition, however, only pushes it back as far as the Nauvoo Temple -- flying over the City of Joseph.--- The bronze 4 pounder was found to have the crest of King Carlos 3 of Spain. When we got to the river, their was a flag ceremony and a prayer. In 2001 three Spanish guns were identified in the LDS Church storage facility in Salt Lake City. The most common musket issued to these militiamen was the Model 1816 Musket. Likely a cavalry guidon of the Utah era version of the Nauvoo Legion. “General Bennett next requested me to take my station in the rear of the cavalry, without my staff, during the engagement; but this was counteracted by Captain A. P. Rockwood, commander of my life guards, who kept close to my side,” wrote Smith. Among these was the authority to create a "body of independent militarymen". Legion survival after death of Joseph Smith. Supposedly, this was to elevate the social status and official standing of some members of the city. They were not disappointed. This force was a militia similar to others in Illino… This caused them to be lost after the deaths of the battalion members, because the source of the cannons was not written. It was nicknamed the "Old Sow" and is on display at the Church History Museum in Salt Lake City. When they resumed their journey home, they bought two cannons from Sutter, a four pounder and a six pounder. Sutter wrote a letter to the pioneer society in the 1870s where he said that his cannons, except for one Russian 4 pounder, which he donated to a museum in San Francisco, were all Spanish guns. Then came the 2nd cohort (foot troops). Twenty or so men including Mark were the Nauvoo Legion and marched with guns and ammo sacks (all pretend) at the head of the crowd. Also, the Harper's Ferry Model 1803 Rifle was issued in smaller quantities. As the band played, flags topped with brass-colored eagles were held aloft. But of the, Smith penned, “Highly delighted.”15, It was not until June 18, 1844, that General Smith moved from the sidelines to once again take command of a large parade and “with my staff rode in front of the Legion, marched up Main Street, and returned to our former parade ground.”  This was the last parade Joseph Smith would lead. The LDS Church was incorporated and a militia, based on the Nauvoo Legion, was formed. The parade was led by missionaries carrying flags and wearing uniforms that represented the Nauvoo Legion. At 8:00am cannon fire announced that Major General John C. Bennett and his staff were being escorted to their posts and taking command of the 650 assembled Legionnaires. In their wake marched military musicians under the apt baton of Captain Edward P. Duzette. It was also under the auspices of the militia that the groups of men were organized who were instructed to burn down Salt Lake City and other parts of northern Utah should the invading army try to take up residence. At this Independence Day celebration, Joseph Smith spoke of patriotism and revealed, “I would ask no greater boon, than to lay down my life for my country.”  After his speech, ranking officers adjourned to the temple site, where a sumptuous feast was served for their enjoyment. Of a company parade held on September 10, 1842, General Smith wrote, “this was the day for the training of the companies of the Nauvoo Legion; and lest I should be observed … I kept very still.”14 Without Joseph Smith reviewing the troops in his splendid military regalia, small parades attracted little attention. Organized under Illinois law, the Nauvoo Legion was a … Voter-conscious Illinois Democrats and Whigs (including Abraham Lincoln) passed a bipartisan city-state charter for Nauvoo in 1840. Participants ranged in age … The Mormon Battalion Flag might be one of the oldest "California" Bear flags in existence. An exact description of the Nauvoo Legion flag (1841-1845) is not available. The Nauvoo Legion survived the loss of its commanding officer, Joseph Smith, when Brigham Young automatically assumed command as the new church president in August 1844, though he had never previously been active in Legion activities because Young was in England on a proselytizing mission for several years and only returned home to Nauvoo when hearing of the prophet's death to assist the family and church and citizens of Nauvoo during that sad tragedy (citation needed). Ibid, 4:502; Times and Seasons, February 15, 1842. The Nauvoo Legion in Illinois was able to draw on Federal stands of arms. After John Hafen (1856-1910), Last Public Address of Lieut. Indeed, the legion became so popular that many non-Mormons joined the ranks. history of the nauvoo legion as it existed in utah but little material in that work pertains directly to this study it is hoped therefore that this thesis will be a worthwhile contribution to ones increased understanding and appreciation of a memorable institution in the mormon past the nauvoo legion 2 aval1 labie ng appa Arestlyreutly ln i COU-AC sl a histonical. The Legion was followed by flag bearers from different countries of those that migrated here to join the church. Only the entrance of the 1st cohort (horse troops) turned their gaze. None of the colorful banners garnered the surprise element as did the flag carried by the Legion Band. The legislature initially formed six counties, which covered only inhabited valleys. The name Nauvoo Legion was revived in Utah and applied to the organized militia of the state of Deseret and later of Utah Territory. Utah (/ ˈ juː t ɑː / YOO-tah, / ˈ juː t ɔː / YOO-taw) is a state in the Western United States.It is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south and Nevada to the west. An Afghan National Army soldier listens while a member of the U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit gives instructions during the Basic Rifle Marksmanship Instructor Course at Kabul Military Training Center, Afghanistan, Nov. 6, 2010. By noon, the military entourage had reached the temple grounds in Nauvoo. CHL. On December 16 the governor signed it into law, granting Smith and the city of Nauvoo broad powers. When the Mormons established their theocratic city of Nauvoo on the banks of the Mississippi in 1839, they made self-defense a priority, having encountered persecution, violence, and forcible expulsion elsewhere. Twenty Mormon militiamen and many Native Americans died in the Walker War. They were led by a flag bearer and drummer boy followed by a contingent dressed as the Nauvoo Legion. The Nauvoo Legion was a state-authorized militia of the city of Nauvoo, Illinois, United States. Soon thereafter, the Nauvoo charter was revoked, and the Nauvoo Legion lost its official sanction as an arm of the Illinois militia.[1]. Flag. People came from all over the US to be part of the parade. The Nauvoo Legion was called up again in the Utah War against Federal troops entering Utah in the "Utah Expedition" from 1857–1858. Media in category "Nauvoo Legion" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. To their surprise, the afternoon house were filled with the dedication of three more temple cornerstones. NAUVOO, Ill. — LDS Church members and friends marched in a procession down the Parley Street "Trail of Hope" on Feb. 4 to commemorate the pioneer exodus from Nauvoo in 1846. A 6-pound iron cannon, probably the other battalion cannon and a smaller, but similar, 2 pound cannon were in the warehouse. Men portraying the Nauvoo Legion fell into line, and behind them flag bearers carried flags from the home countries of those who settled in Nauvoo. On December 16 the governor signed it into law, granting Smith and the city of Nauvoo broad powers. Feeling confident in his military prowess and that of the legionnaires, General Smith invited state and local leaders to attend the May 7, 1842, parade. Records for the weapons issued to the other companies are missing. Behind them came missionaries and members carrying flags of many of the nations from which the pioneer residents of Nauvoo had come. NauvooLegionpaint.gif 576 × 378; 136 KB. Joseph Smith, History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7 vols. These were thought at that time to have come from Sutter's purchase of the Russian Fort Ross and to have been either Russian or French cannons. [citation needed] (Antonga Black Hawk was a Ute and has no connection to the Illinois Sauk chief Black Hawk of the 1830s.) Distinguished guests stood between the soldiers. After the men were released from service in 1847, they headed for home, many stopping for temporary employment at Sutter's Fort. Nauvoo Legion Minute Book, 1843–1844. History records more parades, drills, and mustering’s held in the weeks following Smith’s death than in the preceding two years. The is a copy of it in front of the center. My marching picked up. On that date, soldiers again gathered at an early hour at the parade grounds. Tanner Trust Fund, University of Utah Library, 1980 found online at: Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, https://collections.lib.utah.edu/details?id=328944, http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/BYUIBooks/id/3168, "Uniforms and Equipment of the Black Hawk War and the Mormon War", "Nauvoo Legion, 1840–1845 — A Unique Military Organization", "Series 2210: Territorial Militia Records, 1849–1877, 1905–[ca.1917]", List of Reorganized Restorationist churches, Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) history, Doctrine and Covenants (Book of Commandments), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nauvoo_Legion&oldid=1000193416, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Military units and formations established in 1840, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Protect Mormon settlers from domestic and foreign enemies, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 01:45. The Nauvoo Legion was permanently disbanded in 1887. April 6, [Tuesday] 1841 – At an early hour the several companies comprising the “Nauvoo Legion,” with two volunteer companies for Iowa Territory, making sixteen companies in all, assembled at their several places of rendezvous, and were conducted in due order to the ground assigned for general review.1. Four Presidents served under its banner - Martin Van Buren (1837-1841), William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841-1845), and James Polk (1845-1849). He urged Legion members to not take any action when the Illinois governor ordered the arrests of the Smith brothers, for violating state statutes and by not receiving Albumen silver print of a lithograph. In 1839, Joseph Smith relocated his followers from a hostile environment in Missouri to Commerce, Illinois, which he renamed Nauvoo. Nauvoo newspaper was burned to the ground on Joseph Smith's orders, due to the publication of articles critical of Smith and his church's policies; Joseph Smith was ordered to the Carthage Jail under charges of Treason. [citation needed]. General Smith pronounced a benediction on the stone:  “This principal corner stone in representation of the First Presidency, is now duly laid in honor of the Great God.”  Rigdon added, “May the persons employed in the erection of this house be preserved from all harm while engaged in its construction.”6  The assembled were then invited to adjourn for an hour as Legion officers scurried to make ready the afternoon events. [citation needed]. “And if General Bennett’s true feelings toward me are not made manifest to the world in a very short time, then it may be possible that … a short time will determine that point.”11  Believing that Bennett had tried to murder him, General Smith said, “Let John C Bennett answer at the day of judgment, ‘Why did you request me to command one of the cohorts, and also to take my position without my staff, during the sham battle, in the 7th day of May, 1842, where my life might have been the forfeit, and no man have known who did the deed?”’12, Whether Smith’s dark premonitions were correct is debatable. In the last month of his life, June 1844, Joseph Smith declared martial law in Nauvoo in response to various civil disturbances and initially deployed the Nauvoo Legion to defend the city, only to restrain the Legion from any action later. MS 3430, fd. Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and everyone. 1. Not long after the arrival of the Mormons in Iowa, in 1846, Mormon legionnaires volunteered to serve in the 500 man Mormon Battalion for the U.S. government military expedition to Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. [2] The Legion was organized into two regiments (called cohorts) of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. Curious guests lingered near the temple grounds hoping that artillery fire, sword exercises, and a sham battle would follow. Following these flag bearers came other people walking—many families—and some participants riding in horse-drawn buggies and wagons. General Joseph Smith : Posted by Bedard Fine Arts at 10:42 AM No comments: Sunday, January 25, 2015. This rank is one step above Major General, which most contemporary militias employed as their commanding rank. 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